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Phase 2 Research Paper: Design: Congestive Cardiac Failure – Literature Review Paper

A Review of the Literature on Congestive Heart Failure

There are currently 5.7 million adults in the United States diagnosed with heart failure, and one in nine of those deaths is directly attributable to the condition. Nearly 50% of those suffering from heart failure will expire within five years, costing the country $30 billion annually. It is a chronic and progressive disease caused by the heart’s inability to pump effectively, reducing blood flow back to the lungs and the amount of deoxygenated blood returning to the system (Toback & Clark, 2017). A multidisciplinary approach to patient education should promote continuity of treatment, reduce readmission rates, and improve patient outcomes. Due to the increasing importance of non-pharmacological therapies, nursing has focused on supporting and treating this disease in recent decades, necessitating the development of heart failure clinics and support programs. Nurses use evidence-based instruction and research to improve patient outcomes when cardiovascular problems are managed systematically (Toback & Clark, 2017). The information in this article will help nurses better understand how to care for patients with heart failure. This will be addressed in several ways, including a thorough examination of the literature and a discussion of methods.

Review of Related Literature

In the United States and worldwide, heart failure has become a significant problem that requires increased attention, according to Edelman, Kudzma & Rnc (2021). When we think about heart failure, we think of one of two outcomes: quick or delayed death. Our hearts keep us healthy by delivering nutrients and blood to our organs as needed with the proper flow. As a result of the decreased cardiac output and inability of the heart pumps to circulate and return blood properly from the body and lungs, CHF causes massive fluid buildup around the heart. They found that once your heart gets to this point, it sets in motion a systemic response to make up for the lack of oxygen, which is governed by stroke volume. Preload and afterload, or the volumes that enter the left ventricle, dictate stroke volume. In the event of heart failure caused by myocardial damage, such as diabetes or hypertension, the development of these symptoms creates a unique complication of heart failure, hence Congestive Heart Failure. However, early diagnosis and treatment can help patients with HF live longer, healthier lives. WU et al. (2019) stated that advances in our understanding of HF’s pathophysiology have led to improved treatments, which have reduced HF-related mortality as a result. Everyone has a stake in finding novel therapies and ways to avoid heart failure, especially congestive heart failure.

After being officially diagnosed with CHF, according to Kubzansky et al. (2018)’s findings, your chances of living a more prolonged life increase if you treat all of your medications the same way. Your doctor may likely advise you to make a few lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking and reducing the amount of sugar, salt, and fat you consume, as well as decreasing your cholesterol to help prevent diabetes. It is important to limit sodium intake since it contributes to fluid retention, putting additional strain on an already overworked heart. It was noted in the study by Fletcher et al. (2018) that your doctor or cardiologist may also prescribe other drugs, including diuretics, to help flush out extra fluid and reduce edema, beta-blockers to calm an overactive heart, and ACE inhibitors to help lower blood pressure. When the heart is damaged beyond repair, a transplant may be necessary to save the patient’s life. At risk, persons should put their health first and ensure that they exercise, eat healthily and use the correct medications on time to promote their health.

However, difficulties are more likely to arise if the condition is detected late. As a result, hospital readmission rates are incredibly high, which is a big issue. Readmissions raise the expense of CHF therapy; thus, it is not surprising that these patients have to pay much money. As a nurse, you have a duty of care to your patients. This care includes the encouragement of self-care, education unique to your patients, and coordination of care with other healthcare professionals (Stoney, Kaufmann & Czajkowski, 2018). Readmission rates may be linked to patient noncompliance, but healthcare providers cannot overlook the possibility that inadequate patient education is a factor. The encouragement of self-care is critical for reducing heart failure-related morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Self-care must be promoted through health education. It is crucial to educate patients with CHF about their prescriptions, lifestyle changes (including sodium and fluid limitations), and daily weights.


This study will make use of a non-experimental correlation approach to research. This strategy permits the investigation of the connection between two variables. A retrospective design will be used in this project. According to the findings of this study, a multidisciplinary discharge education strategy promotes patient health promotion for patients with congestive heart failure more than a nursing discharge education alone (Wu et al., 2019). A retrospective design will be used in this project. This research design and approach has two essential advantages: efficiency in data collecting and minimal data collection costs. In retrospect, the most significant drawback is the potential for incorrect interpretation due to participant self-selection.

Sampling methods

Regardless of classification, patients with congestive heart failure are the intended audience for this study. Sequential sampling will be employed in this study because it allows the researcher to select all available participants within a particular time range. In order to get an accurate sample size, we will need to know how many patients were discharged during the specified period. All patients diagnosed with congestive heart failure are eligible for this study; however, only those who live in Florida can participate (Wu et al., 2019). Consecutive sampling has several advantages, but the two most relevant to this study are the researcher’s freedom in selecting inclusion criteria and the low cost of obtaining this data, which is available for every patient in the form of a discharge summary sheet and a care plan. The drawback is that the researcher’s subjectivity and personal prejudices can skew the results. Patient charts must be examined in order to conduct this research, making anonymity impossible. However, confidentiality will be preserved because no patient data or information directly identifying the patient(s) will be published (Toback & Clark, 2017). Identification numbers will be used in place of patient names, medical record numbers, and dates of birth to ensure confidentiality is not breached.

Methods of collecting data

It is required to deliver both nurse-driven and multidisciplinary discharge education to see which is more beneficial. If a patient is readmitted, data will be collected from charts and patient surveys, and places like their neighborhood. Finally, patients who are readmitted will be asked to complete a questionnaire that has been developed in advance. The proposed questionnaire is as follows:

  • What do you understand by congestive cardiac failure?
  • How do you think you can prevent congestive cardiac failure as an individual?
  • How can you promote your community’s health against congestive cardiac failure?
  • What diet strategy do you think can help in preventing congestive cardiac failure?


Data analysis will be ensured through descriptive statistics. The frequency distribution, central tendency, and variability are the three areas of descriptive statistics. Patients are readmitted to the hospital at a high frequency for each team, and we will employ frequency distribution to track this information (A or B). The central tendency is essential because the study’s mean or average will be determined by looking at how many patients were readmitted to the hospital for each of the four teams and dividing that figure by the total number of participants (Edelman, Kudzma & Rnc, 2021). A final variable to consider is how many readmissions each team experiences. When using bivariate statistics, you will be comparing two different things. Nursing discharge education versus interdisciplinary discharge education is the focus of this study. The study will also determine (if at all) whether readmissions rates have any association with nursing discharge education or multidisciplinary discharge education by applying correlation approaches. If team A has a lower readmission rate, then the nurse has done an excellent job of promoting the team’s health.


Patients who are readmitted due to CHF complications portray the rate of poor nurse involvement in the health promotion of those patients. However, the results will also portray the necessity for a strong nurse’s participation in promoting the health of CHF patients. Among the first nursing care pathways to be established, CHF was one of the earliest to affect. Preventing and controlling congestive heart failure (CHF) begins with educating the patient. Continuing education classes for nurses can help nurses stay updated on the latest therapies and best practices (Wu et al., 2019). Nurses are more equipped to help patients when they have the knowledge and information to do so. For individuals, recognizing CHF’s signs and symptoms, co-morbid disorders, reasons for managing symptoms, and what to report to healthcare providers to avoid exacerbation and probable hospitalization is critical, just as it is for anybody with any other sickness or chronic disease (Edelman, Kudzma & Rnc, 2021). Patients’ prognosis and quality of life can be improved when nurses help them comprehend the disease process and adhere to prescribed daily regimens. These approaches assist patients and the health care system as a whole by alleviating financial stress.













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